Digital Music Edition (DME::Music)

1. Preamble
2. Organizational Realization
3. Layout and Configuration of DME::Music
  • 3.1. Structuring of the Edition
  • 3.2. Work Unit
  • 3.3. Editorial Unit
  • 3.4. Headings
  • 3.5. Style conventions for textual documents
4. Philological Principles
5. Musical Text and Encoding
  • 5.1. Basics
  • 5.2. General specifications
5.2.1. Measure count
5.2.2. XML:IDs
5.2.3. Score Parameters (general encoding principles)
a. Score layout
b. Staff size
c. Labeling of parts
d. Bars and bar lines
e. Key and meter
f. Clefs
g. Transposing instruments
h. Staves and voices
i. Segmentation
5.2.4. Musical Notation (general encoding principles)
a. Notes and rests
b. Accidentals
c. Articulation
d. Slurs, ties
e. Ornaments, fermatas
f. Dynamics, performance markings
g. Thorough bass
h. Shorthand notation and copy marks
5.2.5. Text Elements (general encoding principles)
a. Headings, tempo markings, movement designations, cues
b. Vocal text
  • 5.3. Edited Text
5.3.1. Definition
5.3.2. Score Parameters and Design
a. Score order
b. Staff size
c. Names of instruments and vocal parts
d. Bar lines
e. Clefs and transposing instruments
f. Keys and accidentals
g. Time signatures
h. Part writing
i. Peculiarities in music for keyboard and harp
k. Parts not explicitly notated
5.3.3. Musical Notation
a. Music signs
b. Ornaments
c. Arpeggios
d. Vocal appoggiaturas
e. Articulation
f. Dynamics and performance markings
g. Thorough bass
5.3.4. Vocal texts
a. Format
b. Text treatment in the edition
5.3.5. Headings, movement designations
5.3.6. Principles of editing
A. Corrections
a. Errors
b. Unclear readings
c. Doubtful readings
d. Gaps, loss of text
B. Adjustments
a. Adjustments of conflicting findings
b. Adjustments by analogy
C. Free Additions
D. Normalizations
E. Variant readings
5.4.1. Basics
5.4.2. Normalizations
5.4.3. Editorial interventions, typographic markup, and their coding
5.4.4. Editions of the NMA
5.4.5. Regulations
5.4.6. Misprints
5.4.7. Text documents
  • 5.5. Transcript
5.5.1. Definition
5.5.2. Transcription depth
5.5.3. Rules
5.5.4. Individual features
5.5.5. Text components
5.5.6. Scribal hands
5.5.7. Stages of the writing process, text genesis
  • 5.6. Interpreted text
5.6.1. Definition
5.6.2. Regulations in detail
5.6.3. Documentation
6. Critical Documentation
  • 6.1. Content
  • 6.2. Source Description
  • 6.3. Source Evaluation
  • 6.4. Documentation and Code
  • 6.5. Annotations
  • 6.6. Style regulations for the Critical Documentation
The DME::Music is being developed at the International Mozarteum Foundation Salzburg (ISM) in cooperation with the Packard Humanities Institute (PHI), Los Altos, California, as is outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding of 2001.
DME::Music is the critical edition of the musical works of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart in accordance with current philological and editorial standards; it will potentially cover his entire compositional output.
The DME::Music is not identical to the New Mozart Edition (NMA), but the two are closely linked. It is based on the NMA and respects the integrity of scholarship and academic achievement of generations of scholars. In addition to the musical text presented in the NMA, DME::Music strives to open up new areas of Mozart's oeuvre through the edition of sources and alternate versions making them accessible to a variety of users and readers. DME::Music plans to take advantage of the flexibility of the digital format, including in particular the possibility of keeping the edition up to date according to the latest scholarly findings.
DME::Music is a digital edition. All of the music and text are encoded in the mark-up language XML. The code follows the standards of the Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI). Variants, corrections and editorial additions are recorded and documented in the code. Within the edition, music and critical documentation are one unit. The encoding is the edition.
The code is visualized through a corresponding program that will allow the display of the music, variant readings, and editorial additions. In this form, it is freely accessible to the user on the website of the ISM. In addition, the Edition (the musical text with critical documentation) is provided to the user for download (in XML, possibly as a PDF). The use of the DME Music Edition in all of its forms is subject to the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.
The language of the edition is English; important accompanying texts may also be available in German or in other languages.
Given the nature of the digital edition, in which the visual output in the form of a traditional score is an application of the digital code, the Editorial Guidelines have to be, at least in part, also guidelines for the encoding. As far as the visual rendering of the edition is concerned, these guidelines take into account the textual representations, visualizations and display options provided by the ISM. The Editorial Guidelines are provided in the XML file header (<editorialDecl>) as a link. They are subject to versioning. The guidelines have recourse to version 3.0.0 of MEI and the corresponding Guidelines of the Music Encoding Initiative. They selectively establish conventions and preferences for the DME Music Edition without replacing the MEI-Guidelines in their entirety. If a new version of MEI is published by the Music Encoding Initiative, the coding guidelines are checked and, if necessary, adapted.
The so-called reference text within the DME music edition is synonymous with the digitally-remastered version of the NMA. It is based on the text of the NMA in its last documented version. Addenda and Corrigenda in the Critical Report of the NMA, even if they have not materialized in a printed follow-up edition, are considered documentation of the last version and are thus to be factored in the coding.
This digital text is gained from a previous encoding in DOX format. If the DOX-coding does not reflect the latest version, the coding is updated in MEI. Likewise, single elements that are not encoded in DOX, need to be worked into the MEI file.
The NMA volumes in their various editions, including the Critical Reports, are the sources of the digital edition in the sense of textual scholarship and, as such, are listed in the bibliography to the edition, i.e. they are documented in the source description of the file header (<sourceDesc>). The sources underlying the respective NMA volumes (autographs, first and early prints, copies) are not sources of the digital edition; they are therefore not documented in the source description but in the work description (<workDesc>) of the file header.
The NMA is treated like a musical primary source, which means that all additional textual documents that define the NMA as an edition, the variant readings in the Critical Report in particular, are not taken into account. The only exceptions are the Addenda and Corrigenda in the Critical Report.
The NMA is considered a 'sealed text' which means that it is not altered by the digital encoding; new philological findings are not incorporated into the edition. The only exception is the correction of obvious printing errors.
The aim of the DME Music Edition is the digital reproduction of the NMA edition in its substance; there is no intention to imitate the visual aspect of the score or the print layout.
- A uniform staff size is used (also for chamber music with piano)
- The style of headings is standardized.
- Names and designations of instruments and vocal parts supplemented by the editor of the NMA volume are tacitly accepted.
.- Footnotes and commentaries.
- References within the NMA (to the preface or the CR) are omitted.
- Annotations about editorial decisions such as the source of a reading (for example "Dynamics in measure 35 according first print edition") are omitted; however, all readings taken from a source other than the main one, which are identified in that form (i.e. as a footnote in the score), are treated as editorial additions, which means they are encoded with <supplied>. In addition, the attribute @reason is used for referencing the source. All sources used by the editors of the NMA are identified in the file header in the Work Description (<workDesc>).
- Footnotes with music (ossias) are omitted; if necessary, the information is integrated into the coding as a variant reading (using the <choice> element).
- Footnotes relating to simplified listing of prime volta / seconda volta instructions are omitted; the instructions are executed in the musical text (<ending n = "1">, <ending n = "2">).
- Footnotes with alternative tempo or other performance instructions that are documented in one of the sources to the edition are encoded as annotations (using <annot> with the attribute @type="NMA-note").
- Appoggiaturas (as an editorial addition) in vocal parts are omitted.
- Suggestions by the editors of the NMA for the execution of appoggiatura and acciaccatura notes (normally printed as ossias in square brackets above the grace note) are not carried over into the digital edition (see Editorial Guidelines of the NMA, Section IV.B.2.a.).
- Ossia staves as alternative readings (e.g. K. 457/02, m. 37) are encoded as variant readings.
- All clef changes are encoded at the immediate beginning of the passage they apply to.
- Any decisions imposed by the layout of the printed page are ignored, for example cautionary accidentals after a system break (coded uniformely with @accid.ges).
- Blank staves that are hidden in the NMA are turned visible and tacitly filled with measure rests.
- Tuplets with rests receive brackets.
Typographic differentiations in the score (see the table in the NMA Editorial Guidelines, Section IV.A.4.), in particular, the diacritical markup of additions through size (e.g. small staccato dots, small accidentals, etc.), italics (dynamics), or square brackets cannot be implemented in the same manner in the coding as they are not consistent with digital editing.
The decision of the NMA to diacritically mark added dynamics and trills through italics is unfortunate, since it uses the conventional shape in music engraving (e.g. f), while Mozart's original dynamic markings are rendered using the regular shape (e.g. f). This choice suggests to the reader, that Mozart’s marks are an exception or an addition. Therefore, dynamics are not formatted; the rendering will use the standard shapes.
Editorial interventions of any kind (free additions, supplements by analogy, emendations) are uniformly coded as additions (<supplied>). All editorial additions are generically marked @resp="#NMA-editors" in the coding and can be easily filtered out. The editors are documented in the file header.
If dynamics or performance markings consist of several letters or syllables and only one is marked as an editorial addition (e.g. "pp" or "a tempo"), the coding is done by the elements <choice>, <corr> (for the supplemented version) and <orig> (for the original version). <corr> is not to be understood as a correction, but a change in the sense of a conjecture.
The same type of coding with <choice> is used for additions that are not represented in the code as an element but only as an attribute; these are in particular added trill extenders (wavy lines coded with @endid or @tstamp) and accidentals to neighbor notes of trills and other ornaments (@accidupper or @accidlower).
Tuplet numbers supplied by the editor are encoded as supplemented <dir> elements.
The encoding with the attributes @rend (for text) or @lform (for musical characters) refers to the appearance in the reference text, not to the rendering of the encoding. It also serves as a marker, if necessary, to filter out editorial additions.
All tacit normalizations and additions in the NMA are not taken into account in the digital edition. The encoding does not need to consider anything that is not marked typographically in the NMA.
The first edition and its follow-up editions – if they differ in content – are progressively counted as "source_1" (@xml: id, @source), "source_2" etc. If a Critical Report contains Addenda and Corrigenda, it is also counted as a source.
Documented differences between music editions or between the music editions and the Addenda and Corrigenda of the Critical Report are to be documented in the coding as readings.
The coding of the readings is done with <app>, <lem>, <rdg>, where
<lem> = reading of the last edition
<rdg> = reading(s) of the first edition(s), if necessary distinguished by @n.
a. Text style
For all expressions that belong to the category dynamics (<dynam>), no text style is defined in the encoding, as it is assumed that any rendering will visualize them by default according to the traditional music engraving style (italic, bold, if necessary). The same applies to tempo markings (<tempo>).
The text style (@fontstyle or @fontweight) is defined for performance markings (<dir>) and movement headings that are encoded as <tempo>.
Font size (@fontsize) is usually not defined in the encoding.
b. Coding rules
Definitions and DME best practices are laid down in the DME::Music Encoding Documentation.
Only genuine printing errors are considered; these are to be distinguished from readings that may seem questionable in the individual case, but nevertheless represent intentional editorial decisions in the context of the edition. For the correction of typographical errors, the two-man rule applies.
The coding is done with <choice>, <sic>, <corr>. The <corr> element must contain a @ resp attribute, with the value "DME-editors" (@resp="#DME-editors"); the "DME-editors" are identified in the header as "DME Editorial Office".
The NMA reference texts do not reproduce documents from the NMA, in particular the NMA Critical Report is not part of the digital edition.
Each editorial unit, however, has an accompanying note in the form of the "Editor's Note", which is saved in the editorial declaration of the file header (<encodingDesc>). The "Editor's Note" is a brief explanation of the sources used for the digital edition and contains a concise statement on the encoding itself.